Spotlight on microRNAs in allergy and asthma

Spotlight on microRNAs in allergy and asthma

Abstract

In past 10 years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have gained scientific attention due to their importance in the pathophysiology of allergic diseases and their potential as biomarkers in liquid biopsies. They act as master post-transcriptional regulators that control most cellular processes. As one miRNA can target several mRNAs, often within the same pathway, dysregulated expression of miRNAs may alter particular cellular responses and contribute, or lead, to the development of various diseases. In this review, we give an overview of the current research on miRNAs in allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and asthma. Specifically, we discuss how individual miRNAs function in the regulation of immune responses in epithelial cells and specialized immune cells in response to different environmental factors and respiratory viruses. In addition, we review insights obtained from experiments with murine models of allergic airway and skin inflammation and offer an overview of studies focusing on miRNA discovery using profiling techniques and bioinformatic modeling of the network effect of multiple miRNAs. In conclusion, we highlight the importance of research into miRNA function in allergy and asthma to improve our knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of this heterogeneous group of diseases.

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