Omics technologies in allergy and asthma research: An EAACI position paper

Omics technologies in allergy and asthma research: An EAACI position paper

Abstract

Allergic diseases and asthma are heterogenous chronic inflammatory conditions with several distinct complex endotypes. Both environmental and genetic factors can influence the development and progression of allergy. Complex pathogenetic pathways observed in allergic disorders present a challenge in patient management and successful targeted treatment strategies. The increasing availability of high-throughput omics technologies, such as genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics allows studying biochemical systems and pathophysiological processes underlying allergic responses. Additionally, omics techniques present clinical applicability by functional identification and validation of biomarkers. Therefore, finding molecules or patterns characteristic for distinct immune-inflammatory endotypes, can subsequently influence its development, progression, and treatment. There is a great potential to further increase the effectiveness of single omics approaches by integrating them with other omics, and nonomics data. Systems biology aims to simultaneously and longitudinally understand multiple layers of a complex and multifactorial disease, such as allergy, or asthma by integrating several, separated data sets and generating a complete molecular profile of the condition. With the use of sophisticated biostatistics and machine learning techniques, these approaches provide in-depth insight into individual biological systems and will allow efficient and customized healthcare approaches, called precision medicine. In this EAACI Position Paper, the Task Force “Omics technologies in allergic research” broadly reviewed current advances and applicability of omics techniques in allergic diseases and asthma research, with a focus on methodology and data analysis, aiming to provide researchers (basic and clinical) with a desk reference in the field. The potential of omics strategies in understanding disease pathophysiology and key tools to reach unmet needs in allergy precision medicine, such as successful patients’ stratification, accurate disease prognosis, and prediction of treatment efficacy and successful prevention measures are highlighted.

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